is an architectural designer & writer 
currently based in Cambridge, MA.




KPF Traveling Fellowship (2019-20) 

Today we live in an age of improved sanitation and technological advancements; yet arguably mass health is removed from the public domain, commodified, and disproportionately pushed onto individual responsibility based on race, class, and gender. This reserach-publication locates active 20th century sanatoriums as influential case studies to examine the foundational relationship between architecture and health. Traveling East from Aalto’s ‘medical instrument’ in Finland (Paimio Sanatorium), Vasilevsky’s futuristic social condenser in Ukraine (Kurpaty Sanatorium), to Rechter’s brutalist masterpiece in Israel (Mivtachim Sanatorium) and beyond, a survey of still functioning sanatoriums across cultures are selected for a holistic inclusion of social histories, formal analysis, and contemporary adaptations.

Historically isolated in the countryside, sanatoriums failed as pandemic architectures to cure tuberculosis patients, and in actuality served as placebo architectures and quarantine wards of care. However, alongside antibiotics ‘eradicating’ tuberculosis, this typology has disappeared from public memory and lacks a comprehensive reading. Key sanatoria elements once employed as spatial cures – sterile white interiors, balconies in the name of fresh air, sunlight, and access to nature – instruct our everyday spaces. Who had access to sanatoriums and what were the underlying biases and agendas of separation? As hospitals before full dependence on medical technology, sanatoriums are re-opened as radical sites for more than sight based ways of knowing, understanding, and experiencing health. Care as a fluctuating state to maintain health is the conceptual foundation to examine the sanatorium typology and their relevant lessons for today. Influenced by interdisciplinary feminist attitudes of Donna Haraway, Anna Tsing, Helene Frichot, and etcetera, binaries of healthy vs sick, living vs dead, human vs non-human, interior vs exterior are muddled. More than simply being in proximity to nature as a cure for illness, an ethics of care adopts the position of the health of us is health of the environment, the social agenda is also the ecological agenda.

WIP Publication:
The Nature(s) of Sanatoria (working title, 2022)

Full Travel Itinerary

0  Cornell University
1  Paimio, Finland
2  Jūrmala, Lativa
3  Hilversum, Netherlands
4  Almaty, Kazakhstan
5  Dushanbe, Tajikistan
6  Issyk Kul, Kyrgyzstan
7  Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic
8  Davos, Switzerland 
9  Zikhron Ya’akov, Israel

10 Sochi, Russia
11  Yalta, Crimea
*12  Hong Kong